Japan Vision 2050: Principles of Strategic Science and Technology Policy Toward 2020
In Japan, the Basic Law on Science and Technology was enacted in 1995. A program for basic science and technology was drawn up for the first 5-year period (1996-2000), and a further program was compiled for the second 5-year period (2001-2005). In the former, a total of ¥17 trillion (157 billion dollars) was invested on research and development of science and technology; in the latter, a total of ¥24 trillion (221 billion dollars) was invested for the same purpose. The amount invested during the two periods is equivalent to roughly 1 percent of Japan’s GDP. This is a substantial amount, even taking into consideration the differences in social systems like education, research, and employment, among economically advanced countries. It is a manifestation of Japan’s strong commitment to science and technology, and of the high expectations that the Japanese people attach to it.